Clinical Guidances
Clinical Forms


  • Arfken, CL., Johanson, CE., Menza, S., Schuster, CR., Expanding treatment capacity for opioid use disorder with office-based treatment with buprenorphine: National surveys of physicians. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 39, 96-104. 2010.
  • Ling W., Charuvastra C., Kaim S.C., Klett J. Methadyl acetate and methadone as maintenance treatments for heroin addicts. Arch Gen Psychiatry 33:709-720, 1976.
  • Ball J.C., Ross A.  The Effectiveness of Methadone Maintenance Treatment.  Springer-Verlag, New York, 1991; pages 166-168; 181-182.
  • Maxwell J, McCance-Katz EF: Indicators of methadone and buprenorphine use and abuse: What do we know? Am J Addict, 19:73-88, 2010.
  • Metzger D.S., Woody G., McLellan A. T., et al. Human immunodeficiency virus seroconversion among intravenous drug users in- and out-of-treatment: an 18 month prospective follow-up. J Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome 6(9): 1049-1056, 1993.

Basic Pharmacology

  • Buprenorphine: Combatting Drug Abuse with a Unique Opioid. Cowan A., Lewis J.W. (eds), Wiley-Liss, New York, 1995.
  • Cheskin L.J., Fudala P.J., Johnson R.E. A controlled comparison of buprenorphine and clonidine for acute detoxification from opioids. Drug Alcohol Depend 36:115-121, 1994.
  • Cowan, A., Buprenorphine: the basic pharmacology revisited. J Addict Med. 1(2) 68-72. 2007.
  • Doxey J.C., Everitt J.E., Frank L.W., MacKenzie J.E. A comparison of the effects of buprenorphine and morphine on the blood gases of conscious rats. Br J Pharmacol 75(S):118P, 1982.
  • Eissenberg T., Greenwald M.K., Johnson R.E., Liebson I.A., Bigelow G.E., Stitzer M.L. Buprenorphine’s physical dependence potential: antagonist-precipitated withdrawal in humans. J Pharmacol Exp Ther276:449-459, 1996.
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